[ABLS89]    B. Arons, C. Binding, K. Lantz, and Christopher Schmandt.

A voice and audio server for multimedia workstations.

In Proceedings of Speech Tech, pages 86–89, May 1989.

[AM91]    Dennis S. Arnon and S. Mamrak.

On the logical structure of mathematical notation.

Proceedings of the TEX Users Group, 12:479–484, July 1991.

[Arn91]    Dennis Arnon.

DocTypes: A Methodology for Managing Structured Documents of Multiple Types.

Xerox PARC, April 1991.

[Arn92]    Dennis S. Arnon.

Model-directed conversions of LATEX documents.

Proceedings of the TEX Users Group, July 1992.

To be published.

[Aro91a]    B. Arons.

The design of audio servers and toolkits for supporting speech in the user interface.

Journal of the American Voice I/O Society, pages 27–41, March 1991.

[Aro91b]    B. Arons.

Hyperspeech: Navigating in speech-only hypermedia.

In Hypertext ’91 ACM, pages 133–146, 1991.

[Aro92a]    B. Arons.

A review of the cocktail party effect.

Journal of the American Voice I/O Society, pages 35–50, July 1992.

[Aro92b]    B. Arons.

Techniques, perception, and applications of time-compressed speech.

In Proceedings of 1992 American Voice I/O Society, pages 169–177, September 1992.

[Aro92c]    B. Arons.

Tools for building asynchronous servers to support speech and audio applications.

UIST ’92. Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, pages 71–78, November 1992.

[Aro93a]    B. Arons.


ACM SIGGRAPH Video Review, InterCHI 93 Technical Video Program, 1993.


[Aro93b]    B. Arons.

Interactively skimming recorded speech.

Proceedings of the User Interfaces Sofware and Technology (UIST) conference, ACM, November 1993.

[ASea88]    B. Arons, Christopher Schmandt, and et al.

The VOX audio server, version 1.0.

Olivetti Research Center, August 1988.

[Ass86]    Association of American Publishers.

Markup of Mathematical Formulas, April 1986.

Electronic Manuscript Series.

[AW91]    Dennis S. Arnon and Carl Waldspurger.

Meddle: A Structure Editor for Mathematical Notation, February 1991.

Draft Manuscript.

[BB90]    Jr. Allen L. Brown and Howard A. Blair.

A logic grammar foundation for document representation and document layout.

In Proceedings of the International Conference on Electronic Publishing, Document Manipulation & Typography, pages 47–64. Cambridge University Press, September 1990.

[BCK+93]   Robin Bargar, Meera M. Blattner (Chair), Gregory Kramer, Julius Smith, and Elizabeth Wenzel.

Panel: Effective uses of nonspeech audio in virtual reality.

Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Research Frontiers in Virtual Reality, October 1993.

[BG90]    Eric A. Bier and Aaron Goodisman.

Documents as user interfaces.

In Proceedings of the International Conference on Electronic Publishing, Document Manipulation & Typography, pages 249–262. Cambridge University Press, September 1990.

[BG93]    M. M. Blattner and R. M. Greenberg.

Communicating and learning through non-speech audio. Multimedia Interface Design in Education.

NATO ASI Series. Springer-Verlag, February 1993.

[BGB88]    W. Buxton, W. Gaver, and S. Bly.

The use of nonspeech audio at the interface.

Tutorial Notes, CHI ’88., 1988.

[BGK92]    M. M. Blattner, . M. Greenberg, and M. Kamegai.

Listening to turbulence: An example of scientific audiolization.

Multimedia Interface Design, pages 87–102, 1992.

[BGP93]    Meera M. Blattner, Ephraim P. Glinert, and Albert L. Papp.

Sonic Enhancements for 2-D Graphic Displays, and Auditory Displays.

To be published by Addison-Wesley in the Santa Fe Institute Series. IEEE, 1993.

[BLJ86]    M. M. Blattner, Mansur D. L., and K. I. Joy.

Sound-graphs: A numerical data analysis method for the blind.

Proceedings of the Hawaiian International Conference on System Science, 1986.

[Bor88]    P. Borras.

Centaur: the system.

In Proceedings of the SIGSOFT’88, Third Annual Symposium on Software Development Environments, Boston, Massachusetts, 1988.

[Bro88]    Kenneth P. Brooks.

A two-view document editor with user-definable document structure.

DEC SRC Research Report, 1(33), November 1988.

[Bro91]    Mark H. Brown.

Color and sound in algorithm animation.

Technical report, DEC Systems Research Center, 130 Lytton Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94301, August 1991.

[Bro92]    Mark H. Brown.

Zeus: A system for algorithm animation and multi-view editing.

Technical report, DEC Systems Research Center, 130 Lytton Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94301, February 1992.

[Bux89]    W. Buxton.

Introduction to this special issue on nonspeech audio.

Human Computer Interaction, 4(1):1–9, 1989.

[Caj30]    Florian Cajori.

A History of Mathematical Notations, volume I-II.

The Open Court Publishing Company, Chicago, IL., 1928-1930.

Contents: vol. I. Notations in elementary mathematics. vol. II. Notations mainly in higher mathematics.

[Cha83]    Larry A. Chang.

Handbook for Spoken Mathematics.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1983.

[CJ90]    Gil C. Cruz and Thomas H. Judd.

The role of a descriptive markup language in the creation of interactive multimedia documents for customized electronic delivery.

In Proceedings of the International Conference on Electronic Publishing, Document Manipulation & Typography, pages 277–290. Cambridge University Press, September 1990.

[Dav88]    James R. Davis.

A voice interface to a direction giving program.

Technical Report 2, MIT Media Laboratory Speech Group, April 1988.

[Dav89]    James R. Davis.

Back Seat Driver: Voice Assisted Automobile Navigation.

PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, September 1989.

[DH88]    James R. Davis and Julia Hirschberg.

Assigning intonational features in synthesized spoken directions.

In Proceedings of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pages 187–193, 1988.

[DS89]    James R. Davis and Christopher Schmandt.

The back seat driver: Real time spoken driving instructions.

In Vehicle Navigation and Information Systems, pages 146–150, 1989.

[DS90]    James R. Davis and Christopher Schmandt.

Discourse strategies for conversations in time.

In Proceedings of the AVIOS 1990 Conference, pages 21–26, 1990.

[DT87]    James R. Davis and Thomas F. Trobaugh.

Direction assistance.

Technical Report 1, MIT Media Laboratory Speech Group, December 1987.

[F.92]    Jr. McKiel F.

Audio-enabled graphical user interface for the blind or visually impaired.

Proceedings of the Johns Hopkins National Search for Computing Applications to Assist Persons with Disabilities (Cat. No.92TH0429-1), pages 185–7, 1992.

[FBN+90]   Richard Furuta, Heather Brown, Steven R. Newcomb, Roberto Minio, Vincent Quint, Roy Rada, and Laurence A. Welsch.

Hypertext and electronic publishing.

In Proceedings of the ECHT’90 European Conference on Hypertext, Panels, pages 347–353. Cambridge University Press, 1990.

[FS89]    Richard Furuta and P. David Stotts.

Programmable browsing semantics in trellis.

In ACM Hypertext’89 Proceedings, Navigation in Context, pages 27–42. ACM, 1989.

[Gav93]    William Gaver.

Synthesizing auditory icons.

Proceedings of INTERCHI 1993, pages 228–235, April 1993.

[Gib96]    Wayte Gibbs.

Envisioning speech.

Scientific American, September 1996.

[Gol90]    Charles F. Goldfarb.

The SGML handbook.

Oxford: Clarendon Press; Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

[Gro86]    Barbara J. Grosz.

Attention, intentions, and the structure of discourse.

Computational Linguistics, 12(3):175–204, July–September 1986.

[Har88]    Michael Harrison.

Vortex: An interactive document preparation system, volume 236 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, page 21.

Springer Verlag, January 1988.

[Hay96]    Brian Hayes.

Speaking of mathematics.

American Scientist, 84(2), March–April 1996.

[Her89]    Susan R. Hertz.

The delta programming language: An integrated approach to non-linear phonology, phonetics and speech synthesis.

Papers in laboratory phonology I: Between the grammar and the physics of speech, 1989.

[Her90]    Susan R. Hertz.

A modular approach to multi-dialect and multi-language speech synthesis using the delta system.

Proceedings of the workshop on speech synthesis, 1990.

[Her91]    Susan R. Hertz.

Streams, phones and transitions: Towards a new phonological and phonetic model of formant timing.

Journal of Phonetics, 19:91–109, 1991.

[Hir90a]    Julia Hirschberg.

Assigning pitch accent in synthetic speech: The given/new distinction and deaccentability.

In Proceedings of the Seventh National Conference, pages 952–957, Boston, 1990. American Association for Artificial Intelligence.

[Hir90b]    Julia Hirschberg.

Using discourse context to guide pitch accent decisions in synthetic speech.

In Proceedings of the European Speech Communication Association Workshop on Speech Synthesis, pages 181–184, Autrans, France, 1990.

[Hir91]    J. Hirschberg.

Using text analysis to predict intonational boundaries.

In Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology, Genoa, 1991. ESCA.

[HLPW87]   J. Hirschberg, D. Litman, J. Pierrehumbert, and G. Ward.

Intonation and the intentional structure of discourse.

In Proceedings of IJCAI-87, Milan, 1987. International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence.

[HP86]    J. Hirschberg and J. Pierrehumbert.

The intonational structuring of discourse.

In Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting, pages 136–144, New York, 1986. Association for Computational Linguistics.

[HPR92]    E. Van Herwijnen, N. A. F. M. Poppelier, and C. A. Rowley.

Standard DTDs and scientific publishing.

EPSIG News, 3:10–19, 1992.

[HW84]    J. Hirschberg and G. Ward.

A semantico-pragmatic analysis of fall-rise intonation.

In Proceedings of the 20th Meeting. Chicago Linguistic Society, 1984.

[HW89]    Berthold K. P. Horn and Patrick Henry Winston.


Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass, third edition, 1989.

[HW91]    J. Hirschberg and G. Ward.

The influence of pitch range, duration, amplitude, and spectral features on the interpretation of l*+h l h%.

Journal of Phonetics, 1991.

[JSBG86]    K. I. Joy, D. A. Sumikawa, M. M. Blattner, and R. M. Greenberg.

Guidelines for the syntactic design of audio cues in computer interfaces.

Nineteenth Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1986.

[Kat87]    A. Katz.

Issues in defining an equations representation standard.

ACM SIGSAM Bulletin, 21(2):19–24, 1987.

[Kla87]    Dennis H. Klatt.

Review of text-to-speech conversion for English.

Acoustic Society of America Journal, 82(3):737–783, September 1987.

[KLMN90]   Pekka Kilpelainen, Greger Linden, Heikki Mannila, and Erja Nikunen.

A structured document database system.

In Proceedings of the International Conference on Electronic Publishing, Document Manipulation & Typography, pages 139–151. Cambridge University Press, September 1990.

[Knu84]    Donald E. Knuth.

The TEXbook.

Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1984.

[Knu86]    Donald E. Knuth.

TEX The Program.

Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1986.

[KS84]    Gary D. Kimura and Alan C. Shaw.

The structure of abstract document objects.

In Proceedings of the Conference on Office Automation Systems, Document Modeling and Management, pages 161–169. ACM, 1984.

[Lam86]    Leslie Lamport.

LATEX: A Document Preparation System.

Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1986.

[LB87]    A. Lippman and W. Bender.

News and movies in the 50 megabit living room.

IEEE GlobeCom Proceedings, (Tokyo, Japan, Nov. 1987).

[Lev88]    David M. Levy.

Topics in document research.

In ACM Conference on Document Processing Systems, pages 187–193, December 5-9 1988.

Santa Fe, New Mexico.

[LG90]    Jose Valdeni De Lima and Henri Galy.

The integration of structured documents into DBMS.

In Proceedings of the International Conference on Electronic Publishing, Document Manipulation & Typography, pages 153–168. Cambridge University Press, 1990.

[LOS76]    I. Lehiste, J. Olive, and L. Streeter.

Role of duration in disambiguating syntactically ambiguous sentences.

Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 60:1199–1202, 1976.

[LPT+93]    Thomas M. Levergood, Andrew C. Payne, G. Winfield Treese, James Gettys, and Lawrence C. Stewart.

Audiofile: A network-transparent system for distributed audio applications.

Usenix, 1993.

[ME92]    Elizabeth D. Mynatt and W. Keith Edwards.

Mapping GUIs to auditory interfaces.

Proceedings ACM UIST92, pages 61–70, 1992.

[MOB90]    S. A. Mamrak, C. S. O’Connell, and J. A. Barnes.

The integrated chameleon architecture: A software toolset to support data translation.

Technical Report OSU-CISRC-11/90-TR37, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Ohio State University, November 1990.

[OKDA73]   M. M. O’Malley, D. Kloker, and B. Dara-Abrams.

Recovering parentheses from spoken algebraic expressions.

IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust., AU-21:217–220, June 1973.

[Org90]    International Standards Organization.

Information Technology: for Using SGML.

ISO/IEC, 1990.

[PH90]    J. Pierrehumbert and J. Hirschberg.

The meaning of intonational contours in the interpretation of discourse.

In Intentions in Communication. MIT Press, Cambridge MA, 1990.

[PI88]    W. Timothy Polk and Lawrence E. Bassham III.

A window and icon based prototype for expert assistance for manipulation of SGML document type definitions.

In ACM Conference on Document Processing Systems, Document Standards, pages 79–84. ACM, 1988.

[Pie81]    Janet Pierrehumbert.

Synthesizing intonation.

Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 70(4):985–995, October 1981.

[PR92]    Gilbert B. Porter and Emil V. Rainero.

Document reconstruction: A system for recovering document structure for layout.

Electronic Publishing, 1992.

[PS88]    Lynne A. Price and Joe Schneider.

Evolution of an SGML application generator.

In ACM Conference on Document Processing Systems, Experience with Document Standards, pages 51–60. ACM, 1988.

[QNA90]    Vincent Quint, Marc Nanard, and Jacques Andre.

Towards document engineering.

In Proceedings of the International Conference on Electronic Publishing, Document Manipulation & Typography, pages 17–29. Cambridge University Press, September 1990.

[QV92]    Vincent Quint and Irene Vatton.

Combining hypertext and structured documents in grif.

In Proceedings of the Fourth ACM Conference on Hypertext, Systems I, pages 23–32. ACM, 1992.

[Ram89]    T. V. Raman.

CONGRATS: Converting graphics to sound.

Master’s thesis, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, May 1989.

Masters thesis report.

[Ram91]    T. V. Raman.


TUGboat, 12:178, March 1991.

[Ram92]    T. V. Raman.

An audio view of (LA)TEX documents.

Proceedings of the TEX Users Group, 13:372–379, July 1992.

[Ram96a]    T. V. Raman.

Emacspeak —direct speech access.

Proc. of The Second Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies (ASSETS ’96), Apr 1996.

[Ram96b]    T.Ṽ. Raman.

Emacspeak –a speech interface.

Proceedings of CHI96, April 1996.

[Ram97a]    T. V. Raman.

Auditory User Interfaces –Toward The Speaking Computer.

Kluwer Academic Publishers, August 1997.

[Ram97b]    T. V. Raman.

Net surfing without a monitor.

Scientific American, March 1997.

[Res92]    Paul Resnick.

HyperVoice: Groupware by Telephone.

PhD thesis, MIT, 1992.

[RK92]    T. V. Raman and M. S. Krishnamoorthy.

Congrats: A system for converting graphics to sound.

Proceedings of IEEE on Johns Hopkins National Search for Computing Applications to Assist Persons with Disabilities, pages 170–172, February 1992.

[RT84]    T. Reps and T. Teitelbaum.

The synthesizer generator.

Proceedings of the ACM SIGSOFT/SIGPLAN Software Engineering Symposium on Practical Software Development Environments, pages 42–48, 1984.

[RT88a]    T. Reps and T. Teitelbaum.

The Synthesizer Generator: A System for Constructing Language-Based Editors.

Springer-Verlag, NY, 1988.

[RT88b]    T. Reps and T. Teitelbaum.

The Synthesizer Generator Reference Manual.

Springer-Verlag, Third edition, 1988.

First edition, Cornell University, August, 1985; Second edition, Cornell University, June, 1987.

[RW85]    S. Roucos and A. M. Wilgus.

High quality time-scale modification for speech.

Proceedings of the International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, pages 493–496, 1985.

[SA89]    C. Schmandt and B. Arons.

Getting the word (desktop audio).

Unix Review, 7:54–62, October 1989.

[SASH93]    L. J. Stifelman, B. Arons, C. Schmandt, and Eric Hulteen.

Voicenotes: A speech interface for a hand-held voice notetaker.

Proceedings of INTERCHI Conference, ACM SIGCHI, 1993.

[SB92]    Manojit Sarkar and Mark H. Brown.

Graphical fish eye views of graphs.

Technical Report, March 1992.

[SF88]    P. David Stotts and Richard Furuta.

Adding browsing semantics to the hypertext model.

In ACM Conference on Document Processing Systems, Hypertext, pages 43–50. ACM, 1988.

[SF90]    P. David Stotts and Richard Furuta.

Hierarchy, composition, scripting languages, and translators for structured hypertext.

In Proceedings of the ECHT’90 European Conference on Hypertext, Turning Text into Hypertext, pages 180–193. Cambridge University Press, 1990.

[SFR92]    P. David Stotts, Richard Furuta, and J. Cyrano Ruiz.

Hyperdocuments as automata: Trace-based browsing property verification.

In Proceedings of the Fourth ACM Conference on Hypertext, Architecture, pages 272–281. ACM, 1992.

[SGM86]    International Organization for Standardization.

Information Processing: Text and Office Systems: Standard Generalized Markup Language SGML, October 1986.

ISO 8879-1986 E.

[SMG90]    D. A. Sumikawa, Blattner M. M., and R. M. Greenberg.

Earcons and icons: Their structure and common design principles.

Visual Programming Environments, 1990.

[Ste90]    Guy L. Steele.

Common Lisp The Language.

Digital Press, Bedford, Mass, second edition, 1990.

[Str78]    Lynn Streeter.

Acoustic determinants of phrase boundary perception.

Acoustics Society of America, Journal, 64(6):1582–1592, 1978.

[Tec91]    Institute On Applied Technology.

MultiVoice 1.0 —Owner’s and Programmer’s Manual.

Institute On Applied Technology, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, 1991.

The MultiVoice is based on Dectalk 3.0.

[Ver90]    Anne-Marie Vercoustre.

Structured editing - hypertext approach: Cooperation and complementarity.

In Proceedings of the International Conference on Electronic Publishing, Document Manipulation & Typography, pages 65–78. Cambridge University Press, September 1990.

[WF90]    Elizabeth M. Wenzel and Scott H. Foster.

Real time digital synthesis of virtual acoustic environments.

Computer Graphics, Special Issue on 1990 symposium on interactive 3d graphics, 24.2, March 1990.

[WH91]    Michelle Q. Wang and Julia Hirschberg.

Predicting intonational boundaries automatically from text: The ATIS domain.

In Proceedings. DARPA Speech and Natural Language Workshop, February 1991.

[WWK91]   Elizabeth M. Wenzel, Fredric L. Wightman, and Doris J. Kistler.

Localization with non-individualized virtual acoustic display cues.

Proceedings of the ACM, 1991.

[X3J93]    Accredited Standards Committee X3J13.

Programming Language —Common Lisp— Draft Proposed.

CBEMA, 1993.


[Yel88]    Daniel M. Yellin.

Attribute Grammar Inversion and Source-To-Source Translation.

Springer-Verlag, Berlin, New York, 1988.

[ZP86]    Ingrid Zuckerman and Judea Pearl.

Comprehension-driven generation of meta-technical utterances in math tutoring.

In Proceedings of the Fifth National Conference, pages 606–611, Philadelphia, 1986. AAAI.